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Mangosteen & Xanthones

Mangosteen has been traditionally used as remedy for various health afflictions for more than 150 years! 

It contains more than forty types of bio-active, natural substances calledxanthones. These are found in abundance in the rind of the fruit. Xanthones are considered as most powerful antioxidants that are commonly used to fight diseases like cancer andheart disease. It has substantial effects against Alzheimer's disease as well. The anti-inflammatory properties in mangosteen juices drink makes it possibly a useful drink for people suffering from arthritis.

Health benefits may include

It is traditionally used in many health afflictions including cancer and its role in cancer prevention and support to cancer patients has drawn attention most recently. Some possible benefits may include the following:
  • Anti-aging
  • Countering stress
  • Role in cancer prevention and treatment
  • Lowering cholesterol
  • Improving Diabetes
  • Helps in weight lowering
  • Reduces migraine
  • Improves insomnia
  • Helps overcome arthritis pain
  • Improves constipation
  • Helps prevent osteoporosis
  • Enhances body energy
  • Improves immune system
  • Helps regulate blood pressure
  • Helps in hormone imbalance

Some research articles on Xanthones and Mangosteen

Although there is still need of lot of research before we can conclusively write about the benefits of Mangosteen juice, here are some research articles from very credible sources / journals and indexed in Medline. These research studies does indicate possible future role of Mangosteen xanthones in the management of some forms of cancer and some other health conditions.
  • Abstract of study by T. Shan, of Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, China, F. Wang, and E. Wu of Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA and others. titled: Xanthones from Mangosteen Extracts as Natural Chemopreventive Agents: Potential Anticancer Drugs.
Anti-cancer effect of Xanthones shown diagrammatically
Biochemical mechanisms responsible for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potential of Xanthones. ( Courtesy & Credits:  T. Shan, Q. Ma, [...], and E. Wu http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237908/bin/nihms330582f2.jpg )

How Xanthones modulate carcinogen detoxification - diagrammatically explained.
Anti-carcinogenesis effects: xanthones modulate carcinogen detoxification mechanism.Many pollutants such as cigarette smoke, industrial emissions, and gasoline vapors can be converted to active carcinogens and produce excessive amounts of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). These mediators could cause DNA damage, genomic instability, and carcinogenesis. Xanthones can prevent the malignant conversion of precancerous cells by impacting phase I and phase II enzymes activities and inhibiting ROI generation.
(Courtesy and credits: T. Shan, Q. Ma, [...], and E. WuT. Curr Mol Med. 2011 December 1; 11(8): 666–677.)
Link to original image: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237908/bin/nihms330582f3.jpg)

"Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn., GML), a well-known tropical fruit, is indigenous to Southeast Asia but can be found in most tropical countries. This fruit exhibits a variety of pharmacological activities. The pericarp of the fruit contains considerable amounts of biologically active compounds, such as xanthones, terpenes, anthocyanins, tannins, and phenols. For centuries, the pericarp of mangosteen was used as a medicinal agent by Southeast Asians in the treatment of skin infections and wounds, amoebic dysentery, diarrhea, and cholera. Recently, commercial products of mangosteen added with essential minerals, containing mangosteen, green tea (Camellia sinensis), aloe vera, and multivitamins, were used by cancer patients as a dietary supplement. Despite the lack of sufficient clinical evidence demonstrates that mangosteen consumption could reduce the incidence of various malignancy, these products are popular due to their perceived role in promoting health. Mangosteen products are now one of the top-selling botanical dietary supplements. In 2005, these products ranked sixth in single-herb dietary supplement sales, netting more than $120 million, a substantial increase compared to the previous year". Read more...
  • α-mangostin from the mangosteen pericarp suppressed the metastatic processes of human skin cancer cell lines (research study available on medline). Read more...
  • Role of mangosteen xanthones in treatment of allergic asthma: The (animal model) research study reported in Food Chem Toxicol. (2012 Nov;50(11):4042-50. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.08.037. Epub 2012 Aug 25.), conducted by Jang HY, Kwon OK, and others, of Natural Medicine Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Republic of Korea, suggests that Mangosteen xanthones may have a role in treatment of allergic asthma. Read more...
  • Anti-inflammatory effects: "α-Mangostin (α-MG) is a main constituent of the fruit hull of the mangosteen. Previous studies have shown that α-MG has pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory molecular action of α-MG on gene expression profiles". Published in Chin Med. 2012 Aug 24;7(1):19. doi: 10.1186/1749-8546-7-19. The study titled, "Effects of alpha-mangostin on the expression of anti-inflammatory genes in U937 cells", by Liu SH, Lee LT, and others of Herbal Medicinal Product Technology Division of Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, 30011, Taiwan, concludes that α-MG may have role in reducing the inflammatory processes. 
  • Anti-cancer effects: Study titled "In vivo toxicity and antitumor activity of mangosteen extract" by Kosem N, Ichikawa K, and others of Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, published in J Nat Med. (2012 May 24) suggests possible powerful antitumor role of xanthones of mangosteen. The study suggest further studies for deeper understanding of their mechanism, in order to acquire novel effective anti-cancer drugs.
  • Usefulness in breast cancer: Study titled "Alterations in cell cycle and induction of apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells treated with α-mangostin extracted from mangosteen pericarp" by Kurose H, Shibata MA, and others, of Division of Life Sciences, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan. and published in J Biomed Biotechnol (2012) concludes that α-mangostin may be useful as a therapeutic agent for certain forms of breast cancerRead more...
  • Role in management of prostate cancer: Study titled "α-Mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen fruit, promotes cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer and decreases xenograft tumor growth", by Johnson JJ, Petiwala SM, and others of Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA, and published in Carcinogenesis, (2012 Feb) suggests a possible role of α-Mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen fruit, in management of prostate cancerRead abstract...
  • Role in colon cancer: Study titled "Gamma-mangostin, a micronutrient of mangosteen fruit, induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells" by Chang HF, Yang LL. of Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, and Center of e-CAM, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan, and published in Molecules, (2012 Jul) concludes that " γ-mangostin could serve as a micronutrient for colon cancer prevention and is a potential lead compound for the development of anti-colon cancer agents"
The mangosteen fruit, (Garcinia Mangostana) commonly found in Malaysia is considered as Queen of the Fruits with Kingly health benefits! It is not related to mangoes anyway!

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